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Feeding garlic to EMS/PPID horses

 
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PostPosted: Wed Aug 01, 2012 10:58 am    Post subject: Feeding garlic to EMS/PPID horses  Reply with quote

Is garlic safe to feed to horses with EMS/PPID?
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PostPosted: Wed Aug 01, 2012 2:45 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

This article by Dr Karen Hayes explains the effects of feeding garlic well, but was written long before the latest research:
http://www.equisearch.com/horses_care/nutrition/feeds/eqgarlic528/

Recent research from Finland suggested that feeding 32 mg/kg BW (16 g/500 kg horse) dried garlic caused a slight anaemia (mean hemoglobin fell from 13.05 to 11.80 g/dl compared to 13.07 to 12.73 g/dl in control horses, PCV & red blood cells also fell. None were statistically significant.) when fed continuously for 83 days – it concluded there may be a risk of adverse health effects even if quite low doses are fed for long periods. However feeding garlic seemed to reduce tracheal symptoms and accumulation of tracheal exudates.

Influence of garlic supplementation on respiratory health and incidence of anaemia in horses.
Saastamoinen, M. T.; Hyyppä, S.; Särkijärvi, S.
The impact of nutrition on the health and welfare of horses. 5th European Workshop on Equine Nutrition, Cirencester, UK, 19-22 September, 2010 2010 pp. 280-282
http://cabdirect.org/abstracts/20...=6A15A33F2AD6E6796D9369F084E881FF

16 g dried garlic for a 500 kg horse is well within most suppliers' recommended amounts.

Safety of Dietary Supplements for Horses, Dogs, and Cats (2008)
National Research Council
http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12461&page=1
A report by the NRC in 2008 could only give an estimated presumed safe intake of garlic for horses because of the lack of data, and suggested that
the threshold above which the "risk of an adverse event will increase significantly" is likely to be between 15 and 200 mg/kg BW dried garlic - 15 mg/kg BW being 7.5 g for a 500 kg horse - and that adverse effects might depend on the health and oxidative status of the horse.  Oxidative stress is linked to insulin resistance and PPID.

The report notes: "it is clear that safety of the same supplements in humans does not guarantee safety in animals.  The clearest example of this is with garlic, where excess intake may cause hemolytic anemia in horses, dogs and cats.."

Pearson et al.'s research used much larger quantities of garlic (>200 g/500 kg horse/day) and only 2 horses.  Both developed Heinz body anaemia:

Am J Vet Res. 2005 Mar;66(3):457-65.
Association of maximum voluntary dietary intake of freeze-dried garlic with Heinz body anemia in horses.
Pearson W, Boermans HJ, Bettger WJ, McBride BW, Lindinger MI.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15822591

Equine Applied and Clinical Nutrition (2013) p357 lists Heinz body anaemia, uterine stimulant, prolong bleeding time, gastric ulcers and urticaria under "potential toxicity or interaction" for garlic, and states that there is little if any research to support any potential benefits of garlic specifically in horses, other than the reduction of respiratory signs suggested by Saastamoinen et al. 2010 above.  Garlic has been reported to interact with some medicines in other species, and the chapter on specialized dietary supplements concludes "The fact that certain herbs have been fed for centuries does not mean that they are always safe (e.g. garlic)".

See also:
http://www.horse-report.com/garlic-supplement-for-horses.html

Given the possible risk of oxidative damage and hemolytic anaemia, it might be best to avoid feeding garlic to a horse with EMS/PPID, or at least talk to your vet first.

Andrea
www.thelaminitissite.org


Last edited by The Laminitis Site on Thu Mar 12, 2015 11:48 am; edited 3 times in total
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PostPosted: Wed Aug 01, 2012 4:48 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

If a horse has been having garlic, would it be a good idea to feed something like an iron supplement to help boost red blood cells in case of anaemia?
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PostPosted: Thu Aug 02, 2012 4:44 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Definitely not.  It is only anaemia caused by actual blood loss that MAY need iron supplementation - and there's usually plenty of iron in the equine diet (anaemia from dietary iron deficiency hasn't been recorded in an adult horse).  When red blood cells are destroyed in hemolytic anaemia (garlic causes hemolytic anaemia), the iron is recycled and used for new red blood cells.
http://ahdc.vet.cornell.edu/clinpath/modules/chem/extravasc%20hem.htm

Iron is hepatoxic - excessive iron in the liver is a common finding in liver biopsies from older horses - and excess iron can also worsen bacterial infections.  Some vets consider iron overload to be a contributing factor in insulin resistance/laminitis (in extreme cases requiring blood-letting), and excess iron has been implicated in the development of Parkinson's disease, which has similarities with PPID.

Anaemia caused by garlic ingestion should resolve simply by removing garlic from the diet.  Ensuring that the horse has a correct diet with the NRC recommended amounts of energy, protein, minerals and vitamins can only help.
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PostPosted: Tue May 09, 2017 5:59 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

http://www.thehorse.com/articles/...-my-horse-garlic-to-repel-insects

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